I have been particularly interested in the dynamics of communist societies, especially Poland.  I have written on the experience of workers in early Communist Poland, on the gendered nature of anti-communist opposition, on social movements in the fall of communism in Central Europe, and on Eastern Europe’s road from communism.

Research Interests:

  • Modern Eastern European History
  • Communism
  • Political/Social History


  • 19th century
  • 20th century
  • Global History
  • Russian and Eastern European History
  • Labor and Work
  • Politics and Constitutional History
  • Social and Revolutionary Movements
  • State Violence and Human Displacement

Regions of Interest:

  • Eastern Europe
  • Ukraine/Russia
  • South Africa
  • Ireland

Research Topics:

  • Democratic revolutions
  • Social movements
  • Authoritarian states
  • Communism and Postcommunism

How do non-democratic states get most citizens to comply with, or even to support their rule? How do people experience such regimes, whether they are supporters, opponents, or somewhere in between? I have studied these questions by looking at workers women, and youth in Communist Eastern Europe, and comparing democratic revolutions in that region and in other cases around the world.

Russian, International Studies, History
PhD, University of Michigan, History, 1992
MA, University of Toronto, History, 1986
BA, Harvard University, Slavic, 1985