I am a historian of modern Europe, with particular interests in the History of the Holocaust and in modern German history.

My publications have covered a wide range of topics in German, European and Jewish history, including life-reform and protest in 1920s and 1930s Germany; Holocaust survival and memory; Nazi policy and perpetrators; the social impact of total war; post-1945 German and European reconstruction; generation conflict and youth rebellion; Jewish and other minorities in modern German history. I also have an interest in the comparative history of genocide. My current research projects include rethinking the meaning and role of race und Nazi rule, German Jewish experience of Nazi persecution, a history of resistance and rescue und Nazi rule, and a critical synthesis of recent work on Nazi perpetrators.


  • 20th century
  • Russian and Eastern European History
  • Western European History
  • Jewish History
  • State Violence and Human Displacement

Research Interests:

  • History of the Holocaust
  • Modern European History
  • Modern German History
  • Comparative history of genocide

Research Interests:

  • History of the Holocaust
  • 20th-Century German history
  • European post-1945 reconstruction
  • Comparative history, including German-Japanese comparisons

Subject Areas:

  • Jewish Studies and History
  • Germanic Studies


  • Germany
  • History
  • Jewish Studies
Middle Eastern Studies, Russian, History, Religious Studies
PhD, University of Warwick, 1987
MA, University of Cambridge, 1981
BA, University of Cambridge, History, 1979