Research in the Sinha group focuses on understanding host defenses against pathogens, the cross-regulation of these defenses and the evasion of these defenses by pathogens in atomic detail. Our goal is to obtain a detailed yet comprehensive picture of host-pathogen interactions, to facilitate the rational development of therapeutics. Our immediate focus is the mechanism of two such pathways: Autophagy and cytoplasmic receptor-triggered innate immune pathways; as well as the inhibition of these pathways by viruses. While the X-ray crystal structure determination of proteins and protein complexes is the center of our research focus, we use a broad range of techniques including mutagenesis, biochemical and spectroscopic assays, and cell-based methods to supplement and confirm the knowledge we obtain from our structural analyses. The current focus of our research is to understand the structural and mechanistic details of autophagy effectors and regulators, and of diseases caused by defects in autophagy. Biochemistry and Structural Biology of Host-Pathogen Interactions.