I have two main areas of research. The first area centers on understanding kidney structure and function in diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and in models of renal injury. My current research involves understanding the injury created by shock wave lithotripsy treatment. Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is used to fracture kidney stones. It is an effective treatment for most small stones and is widely used throughout the world. However, SWL also causes injury to the kidney being treated. The research that I am involved in seeks to define and measure the structural and functional changes resulting from SWL. In addition, I am trying to determine if altering the parameters of treatment will change the amount of injury. My second main area of research centers on understanding how kidney stones form and what drives the repeated development of stones in some individuals. Kidney stone disease is not one disease, by may diseases which all result in calculus formation in the kidney. Determining what triggers the deposition of mineral deposits will help determine how to treat each type of stone disease.